Tier One Capital Ltd (clone of FCA authorised firm)

Almost all firms and individuals carrying out financial services activities in the UK have to be authorised or registered by us. This firm is not authorised or registered by us but has been targeting people in the UK, claiming to be an authorised firm.

This is what we call a ‘clone firm’; and fraudsters usually use this tactic when contacting people out of the blue, so you should be especially wary if you have been cold called. They may use the name of the genuine firm, the ‘firm reference number’ (FRN) we have given the authorised firm or other details.

You can find out more about this scam tactic and how to protect yourself from clone firms.

Clone firm details

Fraudsters are using or giving out the following details as part of their tactics to scam people in the UK:

Zandex Investment Capital and Finance Ltd / Tier One Capital Ltd (clone of FCA authorised firm)

Address: 55 Basinghall Street, London, EC2V 5DE

Telephone: 0203 608 7989

Fax: 0872 331 2333

Email: [email protected]

Website: www.zandexcf.com

Be aware that the scammers may give out other false details or mix these with some correct details of the registered firm.

FCA authorised firm details

This FCA authorised firm that fraudsters are claiming to work for has no association with the ‘clone firm’. It is authorised to offer, promote or sell services or products in the UK and its correct details are:

Firm Name: Tier Once Capital Ltd

Firm Reference Number: 583021

How to protect yourself

We strongly advise you to only deal with financial firms that are authorised by us, and check the Financial Services Register to ensure they are. It has information on firms and individuals that are, or have been, regulated by us.

If you want to check a consumer credit firm that may not yet have been authorised by us, please also check the Interim Permission Register.

If a firm does not appear on the Register but claims it does, contact our Consumer Helpline on 0800 111 6768.

There are more steps you should take to avoid scams and unauthorised firms.

You should also be aware that if you give money to an unauthorised firm, you will not be covered by the Financial Ombudsman Service or Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) if things go wrong.

Report a clone firm

If you think you have been approached by an unauthorised or clone firm, or contacted about a scam, you should contact us. If you were offered, bought or sold shares, you can use our reporting form.

What to do if your firm is cloned

If you think your authorised firm has been cloned or scammers are fraudulently using your name or other details, contact our Firm Helpline on 0300 500 0597.


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Dear CEO LIBOR letter | FCA

On Wednesday 19 September, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) wrote to CEOs of major banks and insurers supervised in the UK asking for the preparations and actions they are taking to manage transition from LIBOR to alternative interest rate benchmarks. The purpose of the letters is to seek assurance that firms’ senior managers and Boards understand the risks associated with this transition and are taking appropriate action now so that firms can transition to alternative rates ahead of the end of 2021.

These letters were sent to the largest banks and insurers in the first instance. Firms which have not received a direct email from their supervision team linking to the letters are not within scope of this request, however we encourage all firms that currently rely on LIBOR to read and reflect on this letter. The continued participation and commitment of market participants to address the various challenges during this transition will be an essential part of the success of this collective effort. The Bank of England, PRA and FCA are grateful to firms for their engagement with this market-led transition effort to date.


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The FCA announces outcome of investigation into 4 life insurance companies

The FCA launched the investigation following a thematic review, published on 3 March 2016. This identified further work was required to determine whether 6 of the 11 firms that were involved in the thematic review had failed to meet our standards. These 6 firms were Abbey Life, Countrywide Assured, Old Mutual, Police Mutual, Prudential and Scottish Widows.

The investigations into Police Mutual and Scottish Widows were closed earlier without further action.

All of the remaining investigations have now been closed. The FCA found the conduct of the 4 remaining firms (Abbey Life, Old Mutual, Prudential and Countrywide Assured) did not warrant enforcement action. In each firm, some issues have been identified during the investigations, which are being addressed as part of our ongoing supervision of those firms.

The FCA published its Final Guidance publication in December 2016. This sets out the expectations on how life insurance firms treat their closed-book customers fairly, including when disclosing the existence of paid-up and exit charges to existing customers.   

The FCA will continue to assess life insurance firms’ adherence to the required standards and Principles, and take appropriate steps where necessary.

Notes to editors

  1. On 1 April 2013, the FCA became responsible for the conduct supervision of all regulated financial firms and the prudential supervision of those not supervised by the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA).
  2. The FCA has an overarching strategic objective of ensuring the relevant markets function well. To support this, it has three operational objectives: to secure an appropriate degree of protection for consumers; to protect and enhance the integrity of the UK financial system; and to promote effective competition in the interests of consumers.
  3. Find out more information about the FCA.


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Examples of Motor Trade Insurance

There will be many factors that you take into consideration when you are looking for a quote for motor trade insurance. In the first instance you will need to ensure that you meet the minimum legal requirements. You should note that these requirements are just the starting point and good practice may indicate that you need to find a superior package depending on the type of establishment that you are running at the time. In developing a business model for this industry, it is imperative that there are stringent controls on the management of policies and their impact. As a consumer you should take responsibility for looking at the kind of package that is being offered. When there is a claim, that policy will form the protection mechanism against financial ruin.

  1. Indemnity cover : Sometimes the costs associated with indemnity will find you when you are very vulnerable. The package that you select has to reflect the general priorities that you have as a business. In addition you need to review the repercussions of the business models that you are running. With indemnity cover you will not be required to pay excessive amounts to third parties once the claim is settled. Often consumers make the mistake of assuming that the claim is limited to the value of the vehicle. It can include the medical bills and compensation for any victims that are identified by the courts. Therefore without motor trade insurance, you might be in for a very rude awakening.
  2. Premises cover : It is anticipated that you will be selecting motor trade insurance for business purposes. Therefore they expect you to have a building or location where you do your work. The people that are working from home need to undertake further negotiations with their broker so that they get the correct quotation for their circumstances. The promises cover may include outlet posts if you are running a multi location business. Mobile garages can proclaim their status on the application form so that they are not excluded when the settlement process begins. In case there is a dispute, the provider may request proof of address including an invoice or company letterhead. These should be backed up by tax returns which indicate that you are a legitimate business entity.
  3. Demonstration cover : The so called test drive is a major marketing tool for the motor trade industry. Most customers are not willing to take on a vehicle unless they have a clear example of how it works. Therefore you will need to have motor trade insurance for the period when you are driving the car as demonstration exercise. It does not mean that at this stage you can afford to disregard insurance requirements because an accident can happen at any time. The fact that you are carrying a client makes it critical that you have adequate cover for your business and the vehicle. Often this type of coverage is automatic but you need to confirm it by reading all the policy documents that relate to the specifications of the product.
  4. Exclusions clauses : Perhaps the most important aspect of the motor trade insurance policy is the list of exclusion clauses. These are items which will not be considered under the general coverage. You need to ensure that you are in a position to challenge some of the decisions that are taken in relation to the policy. If the exclusion clauses appear to be unfair, then the time to deal with them is when you make the application. Do not wait until it is too late before you start complaining about the fact that you are faced with unnecessary exclusion clauses.

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Source by Arijit Roul

Top 5 Business Security Secrets

It's no secret that globally businesses are navigating through troubled times. The global economic downturn is having a catastrophic effect on businesses. When well known high street names that have been in business for up to a hundred years go bust, then businesses need to evaluate their business development strategy. One other factor which adds further misery to businesses trying to survive a recession is that crime increases exponentially. Crime against businesses is one of the first sectors to rise in a credit crunch. Large numbers of people are laid off or made redundant, they lose their income and many struggle to come to terms with the low income provided by the welfare system.

Those with criminal tendencies will turn back to committing actions of theft and fraud to raise money. Organized criminals also experience financial losses in any economic downturn and sadly businesses are usually the criminal's first port of call. My top 5 business security secrets are designed to assist all businesses to increase their security effectiveness and minimize the security risks of theft and fraud.

Top 5 business security secrets # 1- Conduct A Security Audit

Every business has security requirements, the problem is most managing managers and owners fail to realize this critical factor until it's too late. By too late I mean it generally takes an incident of employee theft, fraud or an act of vandalism or product tampering for the MD or owner to consider implementing security counter measures.

This is a positive first step; however security is best applied as a preventive action, rather than post incident. If security counter measures are applied post incident then the insurance premiums will have already been increased, or flagged for increase during your next trading year. Many MD's and business owners then take it upon themselves to conduct a security audit. This generally is pre-programmed for failure as unfortunately most MD's and business owners do not know what they do not know.

By this I mean, very few are skilled security specialists. The MD or owner security audit is generally driven by price, ie they will usually purchase security products based on the cheapest price, whereas a security audit specialist will focus on quality security products that will stand the test of time and assist in providing business support to the company as the business grows and prospers. A security audit for an SME size business can often be delivered in one to two days.

Top 5 business security secrets # 2- Form A Threat Management Unit

It is safe to say that most business applications and concepts that materialize in the USA tend to find their way across the ocean to the UK at anything between 5 to 15 years later. Threat Management Units or TMU's as they are known in business, are big in the USA and it's only a matter of time before UK businesses jump on the bandwagon. The role of a threat management unit is to analyze all perceived and actual threats to any business and then implement business continuity strategies to ensure the business does not fail because of critical incidents. All business aspects are covered by the TMU including, business growth, joint venture partnerships, due diligence, directors legal responsibilities to employees, employee checks, risk assessment and risk management, crisis planning, downsizing, redundancies, and a host of others. A threat management unit generally consists of two or three company employees, usually the senior company director or partner, the head of personnel or human resources and a manager. The threat management unit is then supplemented by a security consultant or a security director. (see top business security secrets # 5 for further information on security director.) It is important to realize that a threat management unit can and should be formed by even the smallest businesses as the strategies put in place can ensure that small, medium and large businesses can survive and thrive in the event of any critical incident.

Top 5 business security secrets # 3- Design And Test Your Business Continuity Plan

It's difficult enough surviving the current economic downturn without having to face the corporate trauma of losing your business because an external critical incident had an indirect or direct impact on your business. In the aftermath of the London7 / 7 terrorist bombings many businesses were affected by this critical incident. Sadly a number of them despite not directly affected by the bombing were forced to close down. Many of them were small and medium size businesses. Local coffee bars and retail outlets closed because the police and security services closed down the streets to pedestrians where these businesses were located. Some of the custodian restrictions lasted several weeks as scenes of crime officers meticulously investigated these areas. Few small or medium businesses can cope with a loss of all revenue for several weeks.

However if any of these businesses had a business continuity plan in place alternative methods would have been pre-identified to continue with income generation during the time of crisis. Business continuity plans are not restricted to acts of terrorism. They include any type of critical incident which can happen to any type of business small or large. For example; A fire or a flood

destroy your office or shop, an electrical fault blows all your computer and communications equipment. An employee steals valuable data and sells it to your competitors. A disgruntled former employee returns to your business to harm members of your work force. A business continuity plan is a fantastic investment for any business who are seeking long term sustainable business growth.

Top 5 business security secrets # 4- Research Your Business Competitors

All intelligence agencies conduct ongoing research and surveillance on their competitors. The old cliché of knowledge is power that every business coach and mentor bands around is strictly flawed. Knowledge is not power. Power comes from the actions you take from gaining knowledge. I'm not suggesting you hire a platoon of former KGB agents to spy on your competitors although I personally know that this service is available despite generally only to larger businesses. What I do advocate is the ancient Sun Tzu Art of War principle of, 'know your enemy-know yourself'. If this seems something extreme then it's time for a reality check, your business competitors are your business enemies and the war is driven by annual turnover and increased profits, since the need to research your business competitors.

With such advanced research technology offered by computers and the internet researching your business competitors has never been easier. For example most online search engines now offer competitor analytics which allows you an insight into how much they are paying for online marketing campaigns and who they are targeting. Just as it is in covert intelligence operations, being one step ahead of your competitor is key to success. In business this translates to long term business growth, sustainability, increased turnover and profits.

Top 5 business security secrets # 5- Hire A Security Director

This business security secret # 5 should not be dismissed because you think it is too expensive or beyond your reach. A select number of security experts and consultants hire themselves out to businesses on an annual retainer basis. The benefits of this concept are many. You and your business will have the ear of a security expert on call 24/7. You will not have to pay a full time salary for this security director, nor will you have to pay PAYE, national Insurance, holiday or sick pay, nor will you have to pay executive director benefits. In fact I know of some security managers who are retained by small business consultancy agencies for small to medium size businesses for the salary equivalent of a junior administrator. The fees payable for your security director are of course tax deductible. When you factor that this security director generally has a wealth of security experience and contacts which will all assist in your business growth and expansion of your business, then it's a very small price to pay.

A professional security director will be able to produce your security audit, and assist with your risk assessments and prepare a business continuity plan in case your business faces an unexpected crisis.

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Source by Dr Mark Yates

Trading the Decline in Commodity Prices and Volatility

The commodity markets were designed for commodity producers and commodity end line consumers to limit the volatility and risk in their business models. Producers are only willing to keep producing when they can sell their production at a profit and end line commodity processors are only willing to buy them if they can realize a profit upon selling the goods they've finished. The creation of commodity trading floors provided a singular location for these transactions to be recorded along standard times and qualities. Unfortunately, commodity producers only want to sell at high prices and commodity consumers only want to buy at low prices. This created the market makers, floor traders and speculator categories that have come into the markets to provide liquidity by providing bids and offers in between the producers and end users. This week, we focus on the creation of the commodity indexes and Exchange Traded Funds created by the banking sector and what effect the current period of low volatility and declining prices is having on the very banks that created them.

The evolution of the markets created an expanding network of commodity related jobs through the personnel required to run the trading firms and direct the standardization of commodity contracts, storage and processing. The off exchange businesses like the storage, shipping and financing sectors had always been seen as ancillary to the primary purpose of ensuring raw material availability to the end line users. Following the tragic events of September 11th the US Federal Reserve board began adopting easy financing terms to just about anyone. The cheap money made it more favorable to borrow the money and build a commodity storage facility to either fill yourself or to rent space as storage for others. This process was partially responsible for the commodity rally of 2008. The ensuing 6 years of sideways to lower price action coupled with forecasts of growing supplies on the horizon has crashed the profitability of this model and is now contributing to the commodity slip just as it did the price spike of '08.

The two commodity sectors that took the most heat during this period were the grain and energy markets. Food and fuel, life is sometimes that simple. These are also some of the easiest markets in which to hoard the physical commodity itself. The large commodity companies like ADM, Cargill and Monsanto took a ton of heat from the public at large for what was essentially business as normal (albeit at higher prices) practices. However, the JP Morgan's, Deutsche Bank, UBS, Morgan Stanley, Barclay's etc used their banking experience to tap into the commodity revenue stream. Originally, they participate indirectly through a practice of swapping physical for future risk of the underlying commodity and acting as the middlemen in the brokerage process. Many of these firms took it to the next level as they became involved in physically holding and distributing commodities across the globe as the start up financing became a negligible cost of doing physical business in a Zero interest rate world.

The wild volatility, cheap interest rates and generally high commodity prices attracted more players than ever into the commodity markets. It became the party no one wanted to miss. It appears as though its last call for many of these late comers and they're quickly scrambling out the door as the lack of inflation, lower commodity prices in general and increased regulation suck the profitability out of this once low hanging fruit. Currently, Barclays, Deutsche Bank, Chase and Bank of America are all curtailing their commodity interests or exiting the sector completely amidst Tougher regulations and slow, declining markets. According to Bloomberg, commodity related profit for the top ten banks in 2013 was around $ 4.5 billion compared to the high water mark of $ 14.1 billion in 2008.

We've posted several charts to illustrate this point as well as the true commercial traders' effectiveness in trading in the current climate. The commodity markets are returning to their previous mode of trading which should benefit the true commodity traders quite a bit and leave the outgoing banks with time to lick their wounds before they miss the next big rally in the commodity markets.

One of the primary business models the banking sector introduced to commodities was the ETF (Exchange Traded Fund). ETF's like COW (Cattle) and OIL (Oil) were designed to keep banking clients within the firm rather than letting them participate directly in the commodity markets through a commodity broker of the customers' own choosing. More specifically, the banking sector created non margined, long only index funds that consumers assumed would have liked the commodity they were built to track. Not only do most of these funds fail to track their underlying counterparts all that closely but they block the customer from the two primary advantages of exchange traded futures. First of all, commodity futures utilize margin. This allows a market participant to put up a fraction of the face value of the contract while using their excess cash as operating currency. Secondly, the ETF's do not allow short positions, which effectively eliminate 50% of the opportunities to profit. The end result is that the banks place margin with the exchange while lending out the customers' excess reserves. Finally, the bank takes the other side of the clients' trades creating the bank's own short position as the market falls and clients exit the market.

I apologize for the long-winded and basic nature of the opening but it's must have background to discuss the current state of the markets. Referring back to the six charts we've posted you can see a general cross section of the economy as a whole. We've posted crude oil, copper, soybeans, corn, gold and 10-year Treasury Notes which have all traded sideways to lower and done so with a general stability and absence of chop. These are the charts that the news is referring to when it talks about the, "decline in commodity volatility." Furthermore, theirlining prices have cut the profit potential of the storage facilities bought or built by the big banks. All and all, the markets fairly orderly and deflationary trading has ruined many of the big banks' commodity business models.

Our business is commodity trading. It started more than 150 years ago when the first Waldock's came over from Herfordshire, England as hog farmers. Our trading philosophy has always been an attempt to ascertained the true value of something using whatever tools were made available to us at the time. My grandfather used to tour the country East of the Mississippi with a briefcase full of cash and a gigantic pistol (at least it was gigantic as a kid) and delivered each of his buys in person. My father used ticker tape and hotlines to establish prices across different regions of the country. Now, I use the Commitment of Traders Reports along with a neural network to determine not only the size of the commercial traders' actions but also their eagerness to act at given price levels.

This brings us to the recent sell-off in commodity prices and the exiting of the commodity markets by many of the world's largest banks. Referring to back to the charts, commercial trader momentum is the bottom histogram. Red is negative and blue is positive. It's clear that the major market sell-off is placing these markets within the value area of ​​commercial long hedgers. The typical pattern is for commercial long hedgers to continue to buy as the raw material input costs fall to expand the profitability of future finished goods production. Looking at the charts tell us that refiners are stocking up on crude oil below $ 98 per barrel, soybeans and corn below $ 12 and $ 4.50 per bushel respectably and copper below $ 3.15 per pound and finally gold below $ 1,300 per ounce. The decline in prices coupled with a corresponding decline in volatility across multiple sectors – grains, basic materials, precious metals and energy paints a very solid picture of range bound markets for the expected future.

These types of range bound, ebb and flow type markets that are increasingly absent of index and speculative trading respond exceptionally well well to the negative feedback model that commercial traders typically employ. This means that the farther out of balance a market falls, the more the commercial hedger (long or short) will add to their position as they make appropriate production estimates of their firm into the future at the market's new price levels. This can clearly be seen on the charts as short-term market movement continues to press the market in one direction; you can see the commercial position grow in a nearly equal and definitely opposite direction. This is also called, "mean reversion trading." The market's rallies are sold and Declines are bought based on the anticipation that the market will return to recent levels to provide us with a profit.

The commodity market decline in price and volatility had to occur simply because the legislation of easy money forced the market to find a loophole to exploit for excess returns. That loophole became the swaps, storage and distribution capabilities in the commodity sector. In many ways, the general business of the last ten years has been very similar to one long trend trade. Those who were in early obviously had the greatest ability to profit, meanwhile, those who stayed late find themselves competitive for profits at the expense of decreasing margins and increasing regulation, not to mention higher interest rates on the horizon. I'm proud of the value based trading style we've developed over the years and grateful for the ancestry that has always tailed me that the market is always right.

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Source by Andy Waldock

6 Key Elements of a Contract

1. Offer. An offer can be oral or written as long as it is not required to be written by law. It is the definite expression or an overt action which begins the contract. It is simply what is offered to another for the return of that person’s promise to act. It cannot be ambiguous or unclear. It must be spelled out in terms that are specific and certain, such as the identity and nature of the object which is being offered and under what conditions and/ or terms it is offered.

2. Acceptance. As a general proposition of law, the acceptance of the offer made by one party by the other party is what creates the contract. This acceptance, as a general rule, cannot be withdrawn, nor can it vary the terms of the offer, or alter it, or modify it. To do so makes the acceptance a counter-offer. Though this proposition may vary from state to state, the general rule is that there are no conditional acceptances by law. In fact, by making a conditional acceptance, the offeree is rejecting the offer. However the offerer, at his choosing, by act or word which shows acceptance of the counter-offer, can be bound by the conditions tendered by the offeree.

3. Consideration. Consideration for a contract may be money or may be another right, interest, or benefit, or it may be a detriment, loss or responsibility given up to someone else. Consideration is an absolutely necessary element of a contract. As a word of caution, it should be noted that consideration has to be expressly agreed upon by both parties to the contract or it must be expressly implied by the terms of the contract. A potential or accidental benefit or detriment alone would not be construed as valid consideration. The consideration must be explicit and sufficient to support the promise to do or not to do, whatever is applicable. However, it need not be of any particular monetary value. Mutual promises are adequate and valid consideration as to each party as long as they are binding. This rule applies to conditional promises as well. As additional clarification, the general rule is that a promise to act which you are already legally bound to do is not a sufficient consideration for a contract. The courts determine the application.

4. Capacity of the Parties to Contract. The general presumption of the law is that all people have a capacity to contract. A person who is trying to avoid a contract would have to plead his or her lack of capacity to contract against the party who is trying to enforce the contract. For example, he would have to prove that he was a minor, adjudged incompetent or drunk or drugged, and so forth. Often this is the most difficult burdens of proof to overcome due to the presumption of one’s ability to contract.

5. Intent of the Parties to Contract. It is a basic requirement to the formation of any contract, be it oral or written, that there has to be a mutual assent or a “meeting of the minds” of the parties on all proposed terms and essential elements of the contract. It has been held by the courts that there can be no contract unless all the parties involved intended to enter into one. This intent is determined by the outward actions or actual words of the parties and not just their secret intentions or desires. Therefore, mere negotiations to arrive at a mutual agreement or assent to a contract would not be considered an offer and acceptance even thought the parties agree on some of the terms which are being negotiated. Both parties must have intended to enter into the contract and one can not have been misled by the other. That is why fraud or certain mistakes can make a contract voidable.

6. Object of the Contract. A contract is not enforceable if its object is considered to be illegal or against public policy. In many jurisdictions contracts predicated upon lotteries, dog races, horse races, or other forms of gambling would be considered illegal contracts. Yet in some states these types of contracts are valid. Federal and some state laws make contracts in restraint of trade, price-fixing and monopolies illegal. Therefore, a contract which violates those statutes would be illegal and unenforceable. This is true for drugs and prostitution or any other activity if considered criminal.

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Source by Ashley R. Gordon

The All Star Index | FCA

Almost all firms and individuals offering, promoting or selling financial services or products in the UK have to be authorised by us.

However, some firms act without our authorisation and some knowingly run investment scams. 

This firm is not authorised by us and is targeting people in the UK. Based upon information we hold, we believe it is carrying on regulated activities which require authorisation.

The All Star Index

Telephone: 01204652626

Website: www.all-star-index.co.uk

How to protect yourself

We strongly advise you to only deal with financial firms that are authorised by us, and check the Financial Services Register to ensure they are. It has information on firms and individuals that are, or have been, regulated by us.

If you want to check a consumer credit firm that may not yet have been authorised by us, please also check the Interim Permission Register.

If a firm does not appear on the Register but claims it does, contact our Consumer Helpline on 0800 111 6768.

There are more steps you should take to avoid scams and unauthorised firms.

You should also be aware that if you give money to an unauthorised firm, you will not be covered by the Financial Ombudsman Service or Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) if things go wrong.

Report an unauthorised firm

If you think you have been approached by an unauthorised firm or contacted about a scam, you should contact our Consumer Helpline on 0800 111 6768. If you were offered, bought or sold shares, you can use our reporting form.


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Separate Placement of Offshore Administrative Offices

There are a great many possibilities that arise when an individual or corporation establishes an offshore presence with an international business corporation, offshore banking, trust, and foundations. From the administrative aspect an offshore company may have a headquarters office and the overall operation may have a different office for an offshore holding company. To the extent that an international business corporation has operations in many parts of the globe it may need a single, hopefully central, offshore location for administrative offices. Offshore administrative offices not only can provide an efficient means of managing distant operations but can also benefit from tax incentives offered by host countries.

Separate placement of offshore administrative offices from other parts of the offshore business may not be an issue with a new offshore company. However, a successful offshore concern with business activities in many jurisdictions may find it difficult to manage personnel and other aspects of the business without an expansion and the creation of a separate administrative presence. At that time the question may arise as to where to place the administrative offices. It will be at that time that geography, various aspects of the host country, and tax treatment will arise.

Offshore Administrative Offices

An administrative office is exactly that. It is where upper level management for a region or the company's operations for the whole world may be located. It need not be and commonly is not located where specific business operations, manufacturing, packaging, transport operations, call centers, etc. are located. If a company is a subsidiary of another then administrative offices will typically be located so that communication back and so that visits are efficient. The office will typically be responsible for coordination, analysis, financial operations, and other services related to its region. Surprisingly a number of countries typically thought of as high tax jurisdictions offer nominal tax incentives in order to attract such enterprises.

Choosing the Location of Administrative Offices

As we noted above an administrative office will not be necessary for a small company with local and regional operations. It is when business and services become global that the presence of personnel in distant, regional centers is necessary. Often times the need for intensive marketing by personnel familiar with the languages, customs, and general culture of a region requires that administrative personnel be close to the action. Picking a jurisprudence with the right package of communications facilities, overall infrastructure conducive to doing business, international transport facilities will be important. Coupling these factors with the cost of doing business the country is the next matter of concern. Then the issue of tax incentives and advantages becomes important. Basically a company should not set up operations in a country based solely upon tax advantages, such as tax free operations for a period of time, unless the jurisdiction is in the right geographical location to further the successful pursuit of new business or management of current business .

Interestingly, nations such as the UK, France, Belgium and Greece, among others, have made it a point to offer directed tax incentives in order to attract the administrative personnel and central offices of large, multinational offshore corporations. Monaco, for example, offers tax incentives and also does not tax foreign employees of such an operation when they are stationed in Monaco.

Depending upon the need for travel it may make more sense to locate administrative offices in a country where the major airport is the hub of a regional, or preferably global, airline. Also locating the facility near that airport will improve efficiency when it comes to regional travel to global travel back to the home office. There are many offshore jurisdictions that would love to have the administrative offices of a basic international business corporation on their shores. However, many of these jurisdictions do not have the infrastructure to support fast, broad band internet, a major airport, or major banking operations.

The opposite side of the coin is that many choose to set up business operations offshore specifically to take advantage of the asset protection and privacy features of many offshore jurisdictions. If a company sets up offshore with these matters in mind it will likely have set up its business under the umbrella of an international business corporation which is in turn a property of an entity such as a Panama Private Interest Foundation. Such an operation may function very efficiently within a region. However, if business is successful, as one always hopes, it may expand globally. Then it may require that the holding company or the business it self look at separate placement of offshore administrative offices. In this case care should be taken not to disrupt the overall offshore asset protection and privacy aspects of the overall offshore solution in setup up separate offshore administrative offices.

Maintaining Asset Protection and Privacy Features as an Operation Moves Globally

To the degree that the principals of an operation wish to maintain their privacy and that of their assets a number of strategies may be useful as a company expands. One useful consideration is that a company may wish to set up subsidiary operations in different parts of the globe as franchises or separate corporate entities in which the parent operation maintains controlling interest. This strategy allows the company to raise investment capital by selling stock, for example, or franchising operations instead of by borrowing. It also distances the principals for operations in the far reaches of the globe. Thus, they will want offshore administrative offices in distant regions to manage such operations.

This is similar to the issue of trying to optimize tax consequences of the business when choosing a location for administrative offices. There will be times when the principals will have to decide whether asset privacy and protection are the primary goals of their operation or corporate growth and long term, compounding profits. As with many such issues a degree of forethought coupled with competent advice will help. Starting with an agent or advisor who works across national boundaries is setting up offshore entities and working with someone with experience will go a long way towards setting up the most effective and flexible offshore solution at the very beginning. As with all such matters obtaining competent legal and tax advice is paramount.

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Source by Geir Holstad

Personal Injury Lawyers and Attorneys

Personal Injury Lawyers and Attorneys (PI Lawyers and Attorneys) provide specialized legal expertise, to anyone who has been either physically injured, or psychologically injured, due to negligence or wrong doings by a person, or any registered entity (small business, company, government organization, etc). They are highly knowledgeable and experienced in the area of law called “tort law”, which includes civil wrong-doing, as well as economic and non-economic damage to your body, rights, reputation, or property. They are licensed and trained in all areas of law; however, they typically handle only “tort law” cases.

Most common cases requiring these specialized Lawyers or Attorneys involve injuries, automobile accidents, defective products, medical malpractice or mistakes, slip-and-fall accidents, and much more.

Generally, they are qualified “trial lawyers”, though most personal injury cases settle “out of court”, rather than go to trial. They must adhere to both professional and ethical codes of conduct set down by the bar association. Once registered to practice law with the bar association, They can legally file legal complaints, argue cases, draft legal documents, and offer personal injury advice to victims.

Commonly referred to as “plaintiff attorneys” or “plaintiff lawyers”, PI Lawyers and Attorneys are responsible for interviewing prospective clients to evaluate the legal matter, identify distinct issues within the larger problem, and extensively research each issue to build the strongest case. Ultimately, professional responsibility is to secure justice and maximum compensation for loss and suffering.

PI Lawyers and Attorneys owe their clients “duty of loyalty” and “duty of confidentiality”, and must have their clients’ best interests at heart. In order to practice, they have passed lengthy written bar examinations, and, in most cases, written ethics examinations. They have also completed a general four-year law degree from an accredited law university.

Once admitted to the bar association, Personal Injury Lawyers and Attorneys are required to remain up-to-date on all the latest legal/non-legal developments relevant to their field of practice, completing a regular number of ongoing legal education to stay ahead of developments in their field. By limiting the types of personal injury cases they accept, they are able to refine their specialized knowledge and experience. To be certified as a specialist in injury law, however, a lawyer must complete specialty certification.

This allows the bar Association to enforce strict standards of competence, knowledge, and experience, which PI Lawyers and Attorneys must meet in order to be recognized in their area of practice as a specialist. As you can see from the PI Lawyers and Attorneys who appear on the webpage link at the bottom of this article, Lawyers who complete their specialty certification program, in personal injury law, at an accredited university, are recognized as personal injury specialists, and are your best chance of securing a guaranteed result to your personal injury claim.

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Source by Steve Jorgenson