Price Action Trading System – How It Works

Transfer pricing exists among all companies be it domestic or be it a global entity. This concept refers to the setting of the price of goods and services sold between controlled or related legal entities within an enterprise. In case subsidiary company sells products to a parent company, then transfer pricing occurs for the parent company pays to the subsidiary company.

This kind of pricing system mainly occurs between two companies which are a part of the same multilateral group trade.

What is the reason for Transfer Mispricing?

Transfer Mispricing sprouts when there is a form of more phenomenon known as trade mispricing. When business takes place between two unrelated or apparently unrelated parties, such results out. Estimation, that about 60% of the international trade occurs within rather than between multinationals which are across national boundaries but within the same corporate group.

The estimates vary depending on how much tax revenues can be lost by the governments due to transfer mispricing.

When does the Arm's Length Principle come at play?

But as two unrelated companies sit to trade with one another, they may wish to distort the price with an intention to minimize the overall tax bills. But with the "Arm's Length" principle such practices are supposedly to stop and ensure that costs recorded as if the trades is taking place with 'arm's length.' Because the 'Arm's Length' stands unworkable in most of the situation, this is why multinational corporate tax avoidance occurs for a reason.

Traditional approach to Transfer Pricing

The conventional international approach deals with transfer mispricing through 'arm's length' principle. This type of transfer pricing policy takes place where bilateral treaties between governments take place.

Most of the businesses take up arm's length principle while most just move in the opposite direction. It may be because 'arm's length principle is indeed hard to implement. Governments around the world are systematically limped in their ability to collect revenues from the corporate tax system. Also, billions of dollars are wasted annually throughout the world on government enforcement efforts which have little chances of meeting high compliance requirements.

What could stand out as an alternative approach?

As opposed to the 'arm's length' principle, in the uniform tax approach, such tax method is involved wherein taxing the various parts of a multinational company depends on what is done in the real world.

Benefits of Unitary taxation over arm's length principle

1. Firstly this form of tax reductions tax evasion and avoidance by MNEs.

2. Secondly, home countries can find little tax revenue from foreign affiliates as the foreign income is just taxed when it repatriates and foreign taxes are valid against the home tax.

3. Unitary taxation also helps in raising the share of Global MNE rents which are received by poorest countries.

The government is continuously trying to devise measures by which misuse of transfer pricing takes place. Some of the ways by which misuse of transfer pricing can be curved are with the help of arm length principle for the intra-firm sale of goods and services. Thus firms have to be continuously vigilant about these measures and devices for it is they who have to pay for goods and service while purchasing it from the related enterprise. At such time, for firms, the best option is to associate with experienced tax and accounting consultants. They help companies in strategizing and policy development, help businesses to reduce the impact of year-end adjustments, monitor transfer pricing footprint and coordinate across organizations. And most importantly these tax consultants assist in delivering timely risk assessment and management services.

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Source by Alok Sinhal

DUI Laws In Florida For Underage Drinking

In Florida, it is illegal for a person below the age of 21 years to consume alcohol. But a recent study shows that 9.5% of the alcohol sold in the state is to underage consumers. And this has led to a number of accidents and fatalities. For those who are cooking drinking and driving, there can be serious consequences if they are underage.

The Legal Alcohol Limit

In regular cases where a person above 21 years is stopped while driving a motor vehicle for a blood alcohol check, they are expected to have a level of below 0.08. So anyone who is driving a vehicle with a blood alcohol level of 0.08 or above is considered to be drunk driving and can be charged with a DUI. However, the rule is a little different for those below 21 years. Because these individuals are not supposed to be drinking at all, the level for them is 0.02. This level can be literally caused by consuming one drink so it basically comes back to the point that they are not supposed to be consuming any alcohol at all, especially when they are behind the wheel.

Penalties for Underage Drivers

For a person who is below twenty one and is sentenced with a blood alcohol level of 0.02 by a law enforcement officer, their license may be suspended for a period of six months if it is their first offer. A second violation will lead to a suspension of driving privileges for a period of one year. And if the person is below 18 years of age, including having their license suspended they may also be taken to an addictions receiving facility if it is available in the county.

There are also additional penalties for people under the age of 21 who are covered with a blood-alcohol level above 0.05. In this case, their license will remain suspended until they have completed a substance abuse course.

Harsh penalies are often imposed for people who are driving driving under the influence and jail time, steep fines, community service and probation are often imposed on them.

If you have been charged with a DUI, it can affect your entire life. If your child has been charged with drinking and driving when he or she is below the legal age, the charge can follow them for the rest of their lives and affect their freedom and their careers. It is cruel to appoint a good attorney to fight the DUI so it does not tarnish your reputation or the reputation of a person you love.

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Source by Juanita Swindell

How to Become a Digital Forensic Specialist

A Digital forensic specialist is someone who analyzes the digital crime scene in case of cyber attacks and malicious intrusions in order to find the criminal and prove their involvement. Just like a regular forensic specialist, their digital counterparts analyze the smallest bit of evidence and use it to construct a foolproof case against the culprit. Evidence in case of a digital crime includesIP addresses, small footprints left when the hacker tried to access or change something, and more. A degree in computer forensics, criminal justice or engineering is a must in order to pursue a career in this profession. You will also need to attend formal training in order to become a digital forensics specialist.

Steps needed to become a certified digital forensics specialist

There are a number of universities that offer a formal program which you can take to become a forensic specialist. Similar courses can also be found online and can help you master the basics of this program, but courses offered at colleges are generally preferred since they use a more hands on approach and provide formal training that is more structured, and therefore more useful.

The most popular certificates for anyone interested in a career as a digital forensic specialist are:

  • Certified Computer Forensics Examiner Certification
  • Certified Hacking Forensics Investigator Certification
  • Certified Electronic Evidence Collection Specialist
  • Certified Forensics Analyst
  • Certified Computer Examiner Certification

There are a number of specialties within the domain of digital forensics, and depending on your interests, you can pursue either one of them. The main purpose of these courses is to prepare experts who can handle cyber crimes or cyber attacks. Since computers have become commonplace today, crimes that are committed using them have increased as well, so these courses will create a well trained force of forensic experts who can handle such crimes and track the criminals.

What you will learn during digital forensics training program

These computer forensics programs will teach you how to hone your investigation skills, track potential culprits more effectively, how to find the clues, how to handle the evidence you discover properly, and the many policies regarding computer crimes that you need to be aware of. Becoming a Certified Forensic Analyst will ensure that you are able to help law enforcement agencies stay ahead of cyber criminals, and can prove to be a great career for you as the field of digital forensics grow even further.

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Source by Rama Krishna N

Many California Employees Are Misclassified Under the Executive Exemption

Executive Exemption

According to the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement Glossary, the Executive Exemption covers employees who work as managers and meet the following requirements:

  • They must oversee the work of at least two employees at their workplace.
  • They must have control over the hiring, promotion, and termination of these employees.
  • They must ordinarily and frequently operate using "discretion and independent judgment".
  • For full-time employment, they must earn at least two times the current minimum wage on a monthly basis.

Ultimately, if an employee does not meet all of these requirements, they should be automatically reclassified as non-exempt and entitled to overtime pay and other related benefits.

National Retailers

In the United States, there are a lot of national retailers that have misclassified their employees under the Executive Exemption. Recently, one major retailer was accused of misclassifying their "Store Managers" as exempt employees.

These employees have claimed that they mostly complete rudimentary tasks on a day-to-day basis as Store Managers. Some of their non-executive and non-exempt tasks include working as cashiers, addressing customer service complaints, stocking inventory, and cleaning.

Even though these employees are currently considered exempt under the Executive Exemption, they claim that they do not meet all of the necessary requirements. For more information on the Executive Exemption requirements, visit .

Why are managers often misclassified?

Even though the Executive Exemption pertains to administrative employees, that does not mean that all managers are automatically eligible under it. Managers are only eligible if their position meets all of the Executive Exemption requirements. Therefore, it is important to note that having the word "manager" in your job title does not determine your status of being either an exempt or a non-exempt employee. Your roles and responsibilities determine your status.

Ultimately, employers need to be extremely diligent when classifying their employees. If they are classifying employees under the Executive Exemption, it is critical for them to make sure that they are strictly following all of the criteria.

Misclassification Litigation

Unfortunately, multitudes of companies misclassify their employees both carefully and undeliberately. As a general rule, the larger the company, the more likely it will contain misclassified employees. This explains why most misclassification cases are class action lawsuits.

As an employee, it is often your responsibility to ensure that you are receiving the pay that you deserve. If you are considered an excuse employee but do not meet all of the requirements, you should contact an employment lawyer to see if you have a case to obtain the necessary back pay.

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Source by Nicholas J. De Blouw

Workers Compensation for Todays California Contractor

Workers Compensation insurance is not an option for business owners – large or small – in the state of California. Even home-based businesses with a single employee must hold Workers Compensation insurance. This insurance covers employees who are injured on the job while on company property as well as off company property as long as the injury occurred while in the line of duty including automobile accidents. It also covers any illnesses that are work-related.

The insurance is used to pay the medical costs of the employee that are accrued from this injury or illness, as well as compensation for loss of pay due to the illness or injury. The medical costs can include the initial medical services as well as any recovery or rehabilitation costs that may be necessary. These policies should not be mistaken for medical coverage since they must be purchased as a separate policy from the medical insurance offered by the employer. The distinction is that Worker's Compensation insurance only covers employees while they are on the job.

Until recently, it was a relatively common practice for small businesses to operate without Workers Compensation insurance since law enforcement was ill equipped to detect those businesses breaking this law. However, California has recently put into action a bill that will not only serve as a watchdog for California businesses and their Workers Compensation insurance, but it also penalizes any business without coverage. Although businesses will be given a grace period during which they may purchase Workers Compensation coverage without penalization, any business that does not comply within the ten-day time frame will be fined $ 1,000 per employee.

According to the Commission on Health and Safety and Workers' Compensation the cost of cases dealing with non-compliant businesses to the Workers Compensation laws is well over $ 20 million per year, and the cases are so numerous that only 1 in 10 cases are actually cleared through the clogged system.

Of course the cost to you, the business owner, is far higher than the state when it comes to dealing with the woes of not carrying Workers Compensation insurance. State investigators can actually legually completely shut down a business in response to a complaint filed against them concern Workers Compensation. Not only this, but an uninsured employer can be directly sued by an injured employee, and all legal costs of the lawsuit must come out of the employer's pocket where an insured employee would have these legal costs covered in their policy.

Penalties for not carrying Workers Workers Compensation dependent on the case and the size of the business. However, these penalties are always quite steep and never worth any money the company saves by not carrying insurance. Not only is it not worth the risk to skip being insured, new laws are being put into action to make sure all businesses comply with the Workers Compensation laws. To make sure you're not one of the unfortunate companies that must weather the storm of penalties due to non-compliance with these laws, you'll want to make sure you get some kind of Workers Compensation policy for your business. Not all insurance agents are informed of the newest regulations, so be sure to check with the California Department of Insurance for a list of registered insurance firms before settling on a policy.

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Source by Phillip Cocciante

Career As a Forensic Dentist


If a dead body could not be identified because it is too far burnt, destroyed, or decided, the teeth can provide clues that lead to who that person was. Using the teeth and dental records to identify the dead people is the main field of odontology and forensic dentistry. Forensic dentists have become a very important part of investigation on missing persons, disaster recovery, and solving and prosecuting crimes.

Job Description:

The forensic dentist is responsible for identifying the disabled individuals by using the forensic dentistry methods. There are two main forms of dental identification. The first form is the most often performed examination called the comparative identification. This form is used to establish or prove that the remains or bodies of a decedent and the person represented by the dental records before death (antemortem) are one and the same. Information from circumstances or body usually has the clues that lead to who the dead person was. The second form is used in cases where the antemortem dental records are not available and that there are no clues that lead to the possible identity of the dead person. In such case, an after death dental record (postmortem) is completed or compiled by forensic dentists suggesting the possible characteristics of the dead to narrow down the search for the before death or atemortem materials.

Educational Requirement:

Since forensic dentists focus on the identification accident victims, crime victims and the analysis of bite marks to identify the assailants, candidates for this job must have completed a degree in dentistry and must have attended and completed courses and trainings in Odontology (diseases, anatomy, and development of teeth). It is also a plus factor to have attended trainings in criminalistics and law enforcement. Education also does not end once hired as a forensic dentist. Continuing education is a must to maintain proficiency as well as to earn sub-specialties.

Forensic Dentist Salaries :

Since the work of a forensic dentist is time consuming and that the working hours are irregular, a forensic dentist may receive a daily wage of $ 2,000 or as much as $ 150,000 a year when hired as a full-time forensic dentist.

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Source by Marco Sumayao

US Auto Insurance Ends at the Mexican Border

Mexico's Constitutional Law states individuals are presumed guilty until proven innocent. Mexican Law Enforcement Officers have the right to deny anyone they feel are in violation of the law. They have the right to pull you over, search your vehicle, question you, impound your vehicle, hide / arrest you, send you to jail, and hold you until arraigned without sufficient probable cause. They can do this because you are presumed guilty until you prove you're innocent.

How does that apply to auto insurance? If a law enforcement officer notices you have broken a law while operating a vehicle, you are presumed guilty. Once a claim is filed with yours or the other party's insurance company, it is the responsibility of the insurer to determine whether to overturn your guilt or leave you on your own for legal representation. Example, you and another vehicle have a fender bender with no clear evidence as to who was at fault. At that point, the law enforcement officer has the right to arrest both parties until arraigned in front of a judge. The judge can then rule as to who is at fault. US Auto Insurance companies are not prepared to offer liability coverage for this occurrence.

US Insurers offer liability coverage with the assumption one of the parties involved in the accident are at fault, not determined by a court. US Carriers offer legal representation to their policy holders if a claim or suit is bought against them as a covered loss, stated in the insurance policy. If the legalities of the loss are dictated by a court, Carriers are not willing to offer legal representation because if they are defending the guilty party, they are spending more money than allocated in the grouped premium. Mexican Insurance carriers are prepared to offer liability coverage because their policies are designed in conjunction with Mexican Constitutional Law.

Word of advice, when traveling south of the border with a vehicle, get Online Mexican Travel Insurance from one of several well established carriers. Most of the Online Mexican Travel brokers offer the same carriers such as GNP (oldest), ACE, and GE and everything you need to quote, bind and issue coverage is readily available on the website.

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Source by Sean Kimbrough

Importer Security Filing – Start Filing Today

Importer Security Filing (ISF) has been in effect for months. We are almost half way through the trial period and over 48,000 importers are filing. Even though the numbers are increasing there are companies out there that are subject to this regulation that are not filing ISF. If you are one of those companies it is time to face reality and start filing. Those companies who choose to neglect this regulation will feel the pain come January 2010.

Here is a series of good reasons why you should be concerned if you are a maritime importer and have not yet addressed Importer Security Filing:

o First, to implement ISF a number of changes or new procedures may be necessary within your supply chain to gather all ten (10) of the data elements you are required to provide (actually it’s eleven (11) data elements with the requirement to provide the bill of lading number). And of course with change comes the need for intensive communication, training, testing and debugging.

o As with most US import laws and regulations, the importer of record owns 100% of the liability for filing a timely and accurate Importer Security Filing. This liability cannot be absolved or otherwise abdicated, even if you have an agent file on your behalf. You may have recourse in a civil proceeding against that agent, but in the eyes of CBP the importer owns all of the liability and penalties that may be assessed. In fact it is the importer of record´s surety bond that assures and guarantees the payment of potential penalties.

o And speaking of penalties, a sensitive and sometimes painful subject for some importers, CBP and Congress are deadly serious about ISF infractions or errors once full enforcement of the rule begins in January 2010. As this went to press, the Importer Security Filing mitigation guidelines had not been issued, they are expected to be released any day. But from all indications, both publicly and privately, CBP is being pretty hard-nosed about the enforcement phase and mistakes or untimely filings after January 26, 2010 will cost $5,000 each. Furthermore, unless it is just posturing, citing their opinion that the trade has had adequate time to make the necessary adjustments, CBP has publicly advised that they are unwilling to push out or consider a further delay in the enforcement period.

o We are already nearly half way through the enforcement moratorium and the retail peak season lies just ahead. Before you know it January will be upon us and you do not want to be caught in the last minute rush to implement.

o CBP (aka the “Government”) is keeping track of your Importer Security Filing Performance, or as the case may be lack thereof. The first series of 100 ISF Performance reports were released by CBP to the trade the week of May 4th. More reports are expected any day now. The report contains three areas of interest; your company´s Submission Volume, Rejection Error Frequency and Timeliness Performance. Companies interested in receiving their report should read CBP Message CSMS #09-000161 dated April 6, 2009, and follow the instructions contained therein. According to CBP early adaptors are likely to receive special consideration during the mitigation process if errors resulting in penalty actions occur after the enforcement date. Those companies who adopt late will be at the mercy of the Fines, Penalties and Forfeiture Officer.

o Lastly, if you are holding out on Importer Security Filing implementation because you think at the last moment it will be repealed, significantly diluted or otherwise delayed, the likelihood of such actions at this juncture are virtually nonexistent in my humble opinion. This initiative or regulation has a “national security tag” on it which affords it special deference within the government and makes it almost invincible. ISF is yet one more layer of CBP’s multi-layered supply chain security strategy.

Many importers, given the serious nature of the penalties and liability, are electing to prepare and file the Importer Security Filing directly. Moreover, absorbing new fees (ranging from a low of $35 to a high of $150) is a bitter pill to swallow during these difficult economic times. Internet-based Importer Security Filing solutions, make direct-filing an ISF simple and very cost effective. An ISF can literally be filed in a matter of seconds and takes only two screens to complete. Direct-filing makes sense because it is the importer who will generally gather the necessary ISF information, and it is also the importer who is liable for timely and accurate filing. And, because filing an Importer Security Filing is not considered to be “customs business” by CBP, direct-filing importers do not need to worry about obtaining a CBP Filer Code, and there are no permits or licenses necessary.

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Source by Jena Leary

Toughbook 19 Panasonic – 2 Reasons Why Law Enforcement Officials Depend on It and Why You Will Too

Here are two big reasons why the Toughbook 19 Panasonic is extremely popular with law enforcement officers.

1. It has a touchscreen.

You can there before use just one hand – one finger, really – to operate your laptop.

This makes it easier for you to use your laptop if you are in a waiting room, on a bus, … you can hold your laptop steady with one hand while conveniently using your other hand to work your computer. And you can balance or fix the computer and literally use one finger to operate it. Without having to squash yourself into unnatural painful positions. Without having to consistently negotiate for elbow room. Both of which you have to do when using both hands on the keyboard and controls.

In fact, this is a big reason why law enforcement officers like the Panasonic CF 19 Toughbook. With the touchscreen, they can still use their computers in high speed chases.

2. You can twist the screen on the Panasonic TB 19 around and lay it back down flat so that it's screen is facing out, not in.

This way, it works like a tablet computer. So you can write reports, write notes, and scribble messages, in your handwriting, directly into your computer. You can, immediately, then edit what you've written, save it in your handwriting or as text, and even send it to friends, collections, to the office, home, your website …

With this, you are not having to make notes on paper, not risking losing your notes, and not having to then go back and write things up in neat before sending your report where you need to go. This ability of the CF 19 Panasonic Toughbook to act as a tablet is an intense time saver.

Also, when you make your real notes as you go, you train yourself to work more efficiently. You get to be more thorough, more observant. And you find you have to do a lot less follow up research to fill in the gaps.

Because you can get it into tablet mode as quickly as a flash, the Panasonic CF 19 Laptop is extremely convenient to use in this way, while on the move.

Increasing numbers of law enforcement officers do just that. They write up their reports at the scene, when all the details are fresh in their mind, and where they can immediately look for any extra information they need. They then transmit their reports back to the office. Job done.

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Source by Tessa Green

The Top 5 Law Enforcement Jobs

One of the most honorable professions is that of law enforcement officer. They are present at every level from city police officer right up to federal agent. Most departments are always looking for qualified individuals to join their ranks. When deciding on a career in law enforcement there is a multitude of agencies to choose from, here are five to consider.

Police Officer

The police officer is most often found at the city level. They are tasked with general law enforcement of the cities for which they are employed. Entrance requirements vary with each department. However, most departments require that you be at least 18 years old. The education requirements can range from having a high school diploma to having a college degree. Candidates will also have to attend a department police academy. The average salary in the United States for a police officer is $ 53,540.

Game Warden

There are game wardens on local, state, and federal levels. The game warden is tasked with enforced wildlife and fisheries laws. This branch of law enforcement is well-suited for an individual that has a love of the outdoors. Most of the working time will be outside. The training and educational requirements vary for each level. The average salary of game wardens in the United States is $ 56,030.

Federal Bureau of Investigation

The FBI is probably the most high-profile of all law enforcement jobs. The FBI falls under the mandate of the Department of Justice. They have wide latitude in the areas that are covered. Most federal investigations will fall within the jurisdiction of the FBI. All candidates must possess a four-year degree, without exception. A minimum age of 23 is also required, with a maximum of 37. The beginning salary of an FBI special agent will be approximately $ 43,441. The salary will top out at $ 129,517.

United States Marshal

Probably one of the oldest branches of federal law enforcement, the marshals are tasked with providing safety and security of the federal judicial system. They are responsible for prisoner transfers, protection of court officers, and administration of the witness protection program. All candidates are required to have a four-year degree; however, the marshals' service does allow for a combination of work experience and education to qualify. Minimum age requirement is 21 years old, with a maximum of 37 years of age. Once selected candidates must go through a 17 w week training academy.

Secret Service

This agency is best known for its protection of the president of the United States. The Secret Service fall under the treasury department, so the bulk of their liability falls to investigation of monetary crimes such as counterfeiting. Each candidate must be 21 years old, with a maximum of 37. Candidates must have a four-year degree, having graduated in the top third of the class. Prospective agents go through intensive training. It begins with the 10-week Basic Criminal Investigation Program held at Glynco, Georgia. Once that is completed agents are required to attend a 17-week Special Agent Basic Training held in Washington, DC The starting salary for a Secret Service agent is $ 43,964.

These five agencies offer an exciting career path for anyone. A person can feel a real sense of accomplishment knowing that they are in a career that makes a difference.

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Source by Brent A Daniels